November 19, 2019
What Does Alzheimer’s Do to the Human Brain?

What Does Alzheimer’s Do to the Human Brain?


Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause
of dementia in the world. Nearly 50 million people worldwide
have it, and every 66 seconds someone in the United States
is diagnosed with it. It’s been called the epidemic of our century,
but even after decades of research, finding a way to
prevent this disease has been a puzzle that has eluded the medical community. Now, we may
be closer than ever to solving it. – I personally have a lot of hope that we
will see the first survivors of Alzheimer’s disease in our
lifetime. I’m Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner. I’m a neurologist and I’m a neuroscientist
focused on Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive condition,
typically starting in the part of the brain associated with memory. It then spreads, causing trouble with memory,
cognitive abilities and eventually, loss of bodily functions. It’s a relentlessly progressive condition
that leads to death by or with the disease. Age is the most common risk factor for Alzheimer’s. In fact, about a third of individuals ages
85 or above have it. And while the exact onset of this disease
is not known, what is known is that it is characterized by a buildup of toxic proteins
in the brain. – There are two main hallmarks of Alzheimer’s
disease in the brain. One of them is amyloid
beta, which builds up in plaques outside of neurons. And the other one is tau, which is a fibrillar
protein, which builds up inside of neurons. Both of these proteins are toxic, and ultimately
they lead to dysfunction and death of neurons. As these proteins accumulate and neurons start
to die, the brain’s immune system kicks into gear. – The immune cells of the brain, called microglia,
try to get rid of these toxic protein substances. And they also try to get rid of the dead neurons. Ultimately, this immune response leads to
chronic inflammation of the brain. Over a longer
period of time, as the disease progresses and neural cell death continues, the affected
brain regions begin to shrink. And that’s about when symptoms start to
show. – Although it starts typically in areas that
affect our memory, ultimately it starts affecting areas
that control our movements, that control our swallowing and our breathing. And in the terminal
stages of this condition, our patients with Alzheimer’s disease lose their ability to
move, and they become bedbound. And at the end our patients unfortunately
succumb to pneumonia, malnutrition, generalized sepsis of the body. And this is all because of Alzheimer’s disease
and what it does in the brain. And while this all sounds dire, decades of
studies on patients show that there may be a window
of opportunity to prevent the condition advancing before you would see any symptoms. – We know that 10 or 20 years before the symptoms
of Alzheimer’s disease can be observed, there are changes in the brain. We know this from biomarker studies looking
at levels of abnormal proteins in the spinal fluid, in the brain,
or in blood. So biomarkers are quantifiable measures that
can help us detect disease or an aspect of the disease. So for example, we can think blood glucose
levels as being a biomarker for diabetes. We can think about blood pressure measurements
as being a biomarker for high blood pressure. In the same vein, we have developed, and continue
to develop biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease. And while these biomarkers are important to
follow the disease’s progression the research is still ongoing. Right now, knowing a patient’s risk factors
can help them make choices to slow the onset of Alzheimer’s. – Those risk factors that are bad for your
heart are generally bad for your brain. So diabetes,
hypertension, smoking and obesity are risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease. On the flip side,
What we recommend to our patients, and even the general public is that they stay engaged,
both cognitively, physically and socially. That can be anything from exercise to maintaining
a strong social network. The takeaway
seems to be: stay active. – We are also at an amazing time in research
and clinical studies. We are able to combine clinical
information with very complex genetic and other molecular information. This helps us try and
identify the very complex molecular perturbations that can lead to this condition.

93 thoughts on “What Does Alzheimer’s Do to the Human Brain?

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28217094

    Front Pharmacol. 2017 Feb 3;8:20. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00020. ECollection 2017

    In Vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer's Disease. Watt G1, Karl T2

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that is affecting an increasing number of people. It is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau hyperphosphorylation as well as neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Current AD treatments do not stop or reverse the disease progression, highlighting the need for new, more effective therapeutics. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid that has demonstrated neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vitro. Thus, it is investigated as a potential multifunctional treatment option for AD. Here, we summarize the current status quo of in vivo effects of CBD in established pharmacological and transgenic animal models for AD.

    The studies demonstrate the ability of CBD to reduce reactive gliosis and the neuroinflammatory response as well as to promote neurogenesis. Importantly, CBD also reverses and prevents the development of cognitive deficits in AD rodent models. Interestingly, combination therapies of CBD and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active ingredient of cannabis sativa, show that CBD can antagonize the psychoactive effects associated with THC and possibly mediate greater therapeutic benefits than either phytocannabinoid alone. The studies provide "proof of principle" that CBD and possibly CBD-THC combinations are valid candidates for novel AD therapies. Further investigations should address the long-term potential of CBD and evaluate mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects described.

    https://youtu.be/sb6g5-A1ljA  Alzheimer’s b4 and after CBD

    https://youtu.be/yOPLmcFsQ0k  Before and after mental illness Alzheimer’s

    https://youtu.be/KEkvOrtC4lo  CBD oil, Dad’s first dose

    https://youtu.be/q5zX947d9dE  CBD provides help for Alzheimer’s sufferers 

    https://youtu.be/lD74d-S2dH0  Treating dementia and Alzheimer’s – Interview on the effects of CBD on Alzheimer’s and mental illness 

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326479/ 

    Nutrition Journal
    BioMed Central
    Role of homocysteine in the development of cardiovascular disease
    Paul Ganguly and Sreyoshi Fatima Alam

    B)
    The direct effect of homocysteine on the nervous system:
    The action of homocysteine as a neurotransmitter: homocysteine and its related compounds may have a role as an excitatory agonist on the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors and recent evidence also points to the involvement of NMDA modulatory sites [11]. It has also been shown that homocysteine, besides acting as a partial agonist at glutamate receptors also acts as a partial antagonist of glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor [11]. In the presence of normal glycine levels and normal physiological conditions homocysteine does not cause toxicity below millimolar concentrations. However in case of a head trauma or stroke, there is an elevation in glycine levels in which instance the neurotoxic effect of homocysteine as an agonist outweighs its neuroprotective antagonist effect. This may cause neuronal damage via calcium ion influx or free radical generation [11].

    One evaluative experiment to discover the direct effect of homocysteine on the central nervous system involved local application of homocysteine by two different methods of drug delivery to the central nervous system of rats- pressure ejection and ionophoresis [12]. Extracellular recordings were taken from neurons of cerebral cortex, cerebellum and midbrain. The recordings after either method of administration portrayed a dose-dependent increase in neuronal activity by D, L-homocysteine and L-glutamate in 67% of cells tested with both drugs. The similarity in the dose required of D,L-homocysteine and L-Glutamate, points out that D,L-homocysteine seems to be as potent as the latter. This data indicates that homocysteine seems to have an excitatory action on neurons, and this finding may account for neurological symptoms associated with disorders of amino acid metabolism [12]. Some studies also suggest that elevated homocysteine levels may be associated with alterations in mental health such as cognitive impairment, dementia, depression, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease [2, 11].

  2. Hmmm there are a couple downvotes. That must be the science is completely wrong. I guess I can't rely on this video

  3. Isn't known that marijuana reduces plaque and inflammation in the brain? British medical journal and California research…

  4. Should look up Amy Berger, she has some ideas regarding the brains ability to use glucose as fuel diminishing and causing alzheimers

  5. My father passed away from this 5 years ago. I was his caretaker until the last yeas when he list mobility (from an unrelated problem). I can think of few crueler diseases.

  6. A typical age-related disease. Intra- and extracellular aggregates, cell loss, senescent cells, chronic inflammation, nutrient signalling… Everything spirals towards chaos. Terrible.

  7. I was having bad memory, smoking make me forget about myself, so went from quite to talkative to quiet again and since all my dialogue was in my head. I started forgetting my thoughts but then later I started writing, recording audio and playing it again to get it in my memory.

  8. AS BAYRAKLARI!!!! 🇹🇷🇹🇷🇹🇷🇹🇷🇹🇷🇹🇷🇹🇷 gerçi benden başka herhangi bir Türkün bu videoyu izlediğini sanmıyorum..

  9. I know sleep clears out toxins so makes since that not getting enough sleep much more likely to get it. I wonder if America has a higher rate due to our culture relating to work

  10. Look at details . More stronger connections. May reduce brain stress. From constructing try to fill in gaps to knowing only firing when activated

  11. My grandfather got Alzheimer, i'm 25 and i already forgetting a lot. Please hurry. I don't want to be ended up like him. He pooped himself many times because he don't remember where the bathroom is.

  12. there's no cure for herpes, that means alzheimers won't be cured, there's no way
    to cure the bone marrow of herpes. sugar also causes inflammation of the brain
    leading to alzheimers. also it's very difficult to stay involved when no one wants
    or cares if you're around :).

  13. There is a sleep doctor Joe Rogan has on his podcast. There is a direct link of Alzheimer’s disease to lose of sleep. People who get less than 4 hours of sleep have 80% chance of getting it. Make sure you get enough sleep as well as staying active. Hope this helps. You can look up that podcast yourself if you don’t believe me.

  14. My medical teacher use to say back in her young days Alzheimer was rare she believe it's do to all the crap that's added to everything humans grow now and we consume.so everything she ate is organic

  15. They don't mention this in the video, but chronically high levels of cortisol are one cause of the snowballing cycle of neuron cell-death that characterizes Alzheimer's. I know we can't always avoid stressful situations, but we can change how we react to them, develop coping tools, make changes to avoid those situations, and learn to stop positively reinforcing stress. Learning to stop the cycle of ruminating and negative self-talk is a good place to start for anyone with anxiety or depression.

  16. I just lost my Father last week at the age of 79, he had Dementia and Alzheimer’s for the last 7+ years of his life. In the end malnutrition and on top of that pneumonia took him.

  17. Dementia is the reason I'm hesitant to completely get off nicotine. Also, didn't they find a seriously increased presence of a virus in the brains of people who have died from Alzheimer's?

  18. so there are some BioMarkers…why don't doctors test for them on a retired person's annual physical…let me guess, Insurance won't pay for them…

  19. Last week a Harvard study presented findings that suggests reduced neurological activity results in a longer lifespan compared to excessive neurological activity so I’m not sure we have Alzheimer’s prevention figured out just yet.

  20. Took my dad and my grandmother and is taking my mother as I type. Wouldn't wish it on my worst enemy.
    Spend time with your family, everyone. You never know when or who it will strike.. and it progresses FAST.

  21. This was one of the first topics I ever made a video on. It's always really interesting to me to see how other creators approach the same material but in really different ways. Makes it so you can watch a video on things you already know, but it stays really interesting!

  22. I don't scare easily, but the loss of self that comes with dementia is easily the thing that scares me the most.  I lost an aunt to it, an uncle on the other side of the family is starting to show early signs, even on a good day, my memory isn't the best, but I am what little I have.  To lose even that terrifies me.  I stare into my own oblivion every day, and I run screaming from it to go fetal in a corner.

  23. This is a terrible disease. I lost my grandmother and my mother in law because of Alsheimers. Now I do volunteer work in an home for people with dementia. It is sometimes heartbreaking to see them wither away… but it is also very satisfying to be able to give those people some love and care other than the usual medical care. They are not all that old. There is also young dementia. We have people who are just 40 or 50 years old. Most of the people can still do nice things like taking a walk in the sun or sing along with music or even play with cards. I make often a cake or cookies for them. Food is something that makes everyone happy, even the ones who are in the final stage of the disease. I know that most of them don’t recognise me the next day but that doesn’t matter. For them it’s the moment that counts … I hope that more people will finally see that the longer we live, the more chance we have on contacting dementia and that those people are our aunts, sisters, uncles, fathers and mothers. We should not be afraid of them because they remind us of our own mortality.

  24. Blood pressure measurements as a biomarker for high blood pressure? What? It's like saying that a bruise is a biomarker for a contusion.. I'm pretty sure there must be better examples.

    Also "we may be closer than ever to solving it" and then the solution is remain active and do not be obese? Well we probably knew this 50 years ago, I don't see anything new in this video.

  25. I wonder if these treatments can help prevent Alzheimer’s disease for people with Down syndrome who are predisposed to getting Alzheimer’s when they get older.

  26. RIP mum, died 2019/10/4 from Alzheimers. worst thing to see someone go through. 2 years ago she was on the bad end of memory loss, Jan this year she didn't remember me, 3 weeks ago she was non responsive and died with family by her side. Hope there's improvement in this field. They say people last 3-5 years, she barely made 2 years.

  27. This music.. in this video.. is a piss off for something serious. are you fucxxing serious with this? im injterested on the topic but its like edited by a moron

  28. Take intramax and High doses of resveratol everyday. It would slow it down and over time cure the condition. Then continue to take them with a healthy lifestyle. You are welcome

  29. Horrible desease, but it could be worse; my grandma was passed away due to Lewy Body Dementia, which is roughly like Alzheimer's but combined with Parkinson and schizophrenia

  30. FigureAssist alzheimers disease is a fuel shortage to the brain.
    It has been called type three diabetes, insulin resistance of the brain.
    Eat a low or zero carb diet and avoid/prevent/reverse Alzheimer’s.

  31. everything described here sounds exactly how my grandma died and the few years leading up to it, I think she had Alzheimer's and never got it diagnosed?

  32. This video came at a great time, as I am taking care of my mother who was diagnosed with Alzheimer's at only 54 years old. It is very rare to have it at such a young age. She is now 55 and the disease has progressed a lot. The neurologist has declared she's at an advanced stage already. It breaks my heart to see my mother like this. I lose her a bit everyday, and that is something I don't wish to even my greatest enemies.
    She is one of the kindest, sweetest people I've ever known. Life was unfair to her, I just try my best to give a bit of happiness back to her while she is still alive.
    May the ones who witness this disease and who live it on a regular basis be blessed with as little struggle as possible. Stay strong and be kind to the ones struck with this frustrating disease and those who deal with it everyday.

  33. Fact: all alziemers patients had one thing in common. A buildup of heavy metals (aluminum) in the back of the brainstem.

    Solution? Heavy metal detox , proper diet, filter you’re water from fluoride . Problem solved .

    Now if only we can get agricultural industry and geo engineering operators to stop lacing everything with heavy metal poison that would be a good start

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